His All Holiness Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew On the Quest for the Unity of the Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches
The Ecumenical Patriarchate is committed to the movement to restore the visible unity of the churches. This conviction is rooted in the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. As the good shepherd, our Lord came to heal and to reconcile us with the Father. On the night he gave himself up for the life of the world, our Lord prayed for the unity of his followers.
As members of His Church, therefore, we too have a profound obligation to share in the divine action of reconciliation. In celebrating the Resurrection, we proclaim the divine victory over all the forces of division and alienation. With the Apostle Paul, we declare: "God was in Christ reconciling Himself to the world and has given us the ministry of reconciliation" (2 Cor. 5:18).
Mindful of its historic obligations, the Patriarchate has taken a role of leadership in the contemporary ecumenical movement. From the earliest days of the 20th century, the Patriarchate issued a number of encyclicals, which dealt with the topic of the unity of the Church.
Since that time, the Ecumenical Patriarchate has consistently reminded all of the tragedy of Christian disunity. The disunity of Christians is contrary to the will of our Lord. Our disunity is a scandal, which weakens our witness to the Gospel of Christ and our mission in the world. Our disunity does not give glory to our God of reconciliation.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate has been an ardent proponent of genuine efforts among Christians to overcome animosity and misunderstandings. The Patriarchate has called upon the churches to come out of their isolation, and to enter into dialogue for the sake of reconciliation and the restoration of visible unity. The Ecumenical Patriarchate has reminded the followers of Christ of the prayer of the Lord for their unity. He prayed "that they may be one even as you Father are in me and I in you, may they also be one in us, so that the world may believe that you sent me" (John 17:21). We all need to hear clearly this powerful prayer of our Lord today.
We remember with much joy that this dialogue began forty years ago in Jerusalem. There, on the Mount of Olives in 1964, our predecessor Patriarch Athenagoras, of blessed memory, met with Pope Paul IV, of blessed memory. Coming from the West and the East, from Old Rome and New Rome, these humble servants greeted each other as pilgrims and brothers in Christ. Mindful of Our Lord's prayer for unity, they prayed together. They exchanged the kiss of peace. And, they vowed with God's help to begin a new process of reconciliation, which would lead to the restoration of community between the Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church.
At the time, Patriarch Athenagoras declared: "May this meeting of ours be the first glimmer of dawn of a shining and holy day in which the Christian generations of the future will receive communion in the holy body and blood of the Lord from the same chalice, in love, peace, and unity, and will praise and glorify the one Lord and Savior of all."
The historic meeting between Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras in Jerusalem opened up a new era in the relations between our churches. Their meeting eventually led to many new contacts between Rome and Constantinople. It led in 1965 to the historic ‘Lifting of the Anathemas of 1054.' It led to the development of formal theological dialogues…We give thanks to God for these holy and faithful bishops. They were inspired by our Lord's prayer for the unity of his followers. May their words and actions be a powerful example for us now and in the days ahead.
We know that the process of reconciliation is not always easy. The division between the Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church has persisted for centuries. Yet, we firmly believe that, with the guidance of the Risen Lord, our differences are not beyond resolution. Moreover, we believe that we have a solemn obligation to our Lord to heal our painful divisions. For this reason, we must be persistent in our prayer. We must increase our expressions of love and mutual respect. We must strengthen our theological dialogue.
Our reconciliation will not take place without fervent prayer for unity. Through our prayer, we open ourselves up to the healing presence of our Heavenly Father. By praying together for the unity of the churches, we profess our willingness to participate in God's reconciling activities both in our churches and in our societies.
Our reconciliation will not take place without countless acts of love, forgiveness and mutual respect. Through these actions, we unite ourselves consciously with our Lord who manifested God's mercy and love. By expressing our love together, we become the persons through whom Christ continues to work in our world today.
Our reconciliation will not take place without theological dialogue. Through our dialogues, we seek the guidance of the Spirit who will lead us in all truth. By speaking to one another with love and respect, the Spirit can guide us to express together the Apostolic Faith today in a manner which is life giving and healing.
We can never accept a superficial unity, which neglects the difficult issues, which separate us at the table of the Lord. With prayer and with love, we must examine fully and honestly all the theological issues which divide us. The unity which our Lord desires for us as Orthodox and Roman Catholics must always affirm the faith of the Apostles and must sustain the good order of the Church.
The division between our Churches is not simply the result of theological differences. The division has been compounded by political, economic, and cultural factors over the centuries. The division also has been aggravated by historical actions which have had tragic consequences both for the churches and for the world.
During this year (2004), we recall with profound sadness the sack of the City of Constantinople in 1204. Eight hundred years ago, Western Crusaders entered this city and plundered it. This tragedy reflected the complex political and commercial factors of the day. However, the event profoundly aggravated the relations between the Church of Rome and the Church of Constantinople. Some historians have expressed the opinion that the Fourth Crusade and the temporary establishment of a Western hierarchy by Rome in the East may truly mark the beginning of the schism. There is no doubt that the tragedy of the Fourth Crusade deepened the animosity between the Christian West and the Christian East especially among the laity.
We deeply appreciate the fact that His Holiness Pope John Paul II has recognized the disastrous consequences of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. During his visit to Greece in the year 2001, His Holiness Pope John Paul II declared that the crusaders "turned against their own brothers in the faith." His Holiness asked the Lord for forgiveness for the sins "by action or omission of members of the Catholic Church against their Orthodox brothers and sisters."
We are deeply moved by the plea for forgiveness by His Holiness Pope John Paul II. It is another expression of his desire to heal the division between our churches. With gratitude to our Lord, we recognize the Pope's sincerity and we honor his request for forgiveness. To his prayer, we also declare: May our good and merciful God forgive all who sin against the unity of the Church and may He guide all believers on the path of reconciliation.
Now, we must resolve not to undertake actions which can further divide the Orthodox Church and Catholic Church.
"May the God of steadfastness and encouragement grant you to live in harmony with one another in accordance with Jesus Christ so that together you may with one voice glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ" (Rom. 15:5).
To Him be glory now and forever and unto ages of ages. Amen.
From a Greeting by
His All Holiness Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew
Orientale Lumen Conference
The Ecumenical Patriarchate
May 12, 2004
Greeting by His All-Holiness on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the opening of the Second Vatican Council
On the occasion of the celebration in Rome of the 50th anniversary since the opening of Vatican II, His All-Holiness delivered the following address at the invitation of Pope Benedict XVI.
(St. Peter's Square, 11 October 2012)
Beloved brother in the Lord, Your Holiness Pope Benedict;
Brothers and Sisters;
As Christ prepared for His Gethsemane experience, He prayed a prayer for unity which is recorded in the Gospel of Saint John Chapter 17 verse 11: ". . . keep through Your name those whom You have given Me, that they may be one as We are".[i] Through the centuries we have, indeed, been kept in the power and love of Christ, and in the proper moment in history the Holy Spirit moved upon us and we began the long journey towards the visible unity that Christ desires. This has been confirmed in Unitatis Redintegratio §1:
Everywhere large numbers have felt the impulse of this grace, and among our separated brethren also there increases from day to day the movement, fostered by the grace of the Holy Spirit, for the restoration of unity among all Christians.
Fifty years ago in this very square, a powerful and pivotal celebration captured the heart and mind of the Roman Catholic Church, transporting it across the centuries into the contemporary world. This transforming milestone, the opening of the Second Vatican Council, was inspired by the fundamental reality that the Son and incarnate Logos of God is "…where two or three are gathered in his name" (Matt.18.20) and that the Spirit, who proceeds from the Father, "…will guide us into the whole truth." (John 16.13).
In the 50 years that have intervened, we recall with vividness and tenderness, but also with elation and enthusiasm, our personal discussions with episcopal members and theological periti during our formative time – then as a young student – at the Pontifical Oriental Institute, as well as our personal attendance at some special sessions of the Council. We witnessed firsthand how the bishops experienced a renewed awareness of the validity – and a reinforced sense of the continuity – of the tradition and faith "once for all delivered to the saints" (Jude 1.3). It was a period of promise and hope for your Church both internally and externally.
For the Orthodox Church, we have observed a time of exchange and expectation. For example, the convocation of the first Pan-Orthodox Conferences in Rhodes led to the Pre-Conciliar Pan-Orthodox Conferences in preparation for the Great Council of the Orthodox Churches. These exchanges will demonstrate the unified witness of the Orthodox Church in the modern world. Moreover, it coincided with the "dialogue of love" and heralded the Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue between the Roman Catholic and the Orthodox Church, which was established by our venerable predecessors Pope John Paul II and Ecumenical Patriarch Dimitrios.
Over the last five decades, the achievements of this assembly have been diverse as evidenced through the series of important and influential constitutions, declarations, and decrees. We have contemplated the renewal of the spirit and "return to the sources" through liturgical study, biblical research, and patristic scholarship. We have appreciated the struggle toward gradual liberation from the limitation of rigid scholasticism to the openness of ecumenical encounter, which has led to the mutual rescinding of the excommunications of the year 1054, the exchange of greetings, returning of relics, entering into important dialogues, and visiting each other in our respective Sees.
Our journey has not always been easy or without pain and challenge, for as we know "narrow is the gate and difficult is the way" (Matthew 7.14). The essential theology and principal themes of the Second Vatican Council – the mystery of the Church, the sacredness of the liturgy, and the authority of the bishop – are difficult to apply in earnest practice, and constitute a life-long and church-wide labor to assimilate. The door, then, must remain open for deeper reception, pastoral engagement, and ecclesial interpretation of the Second Vatican Council.
As we move forward together, we offer thanks and glory to the living God – Father, Son and Holy Spirit – that the same assembly of bishops has recognised the importance of reflection and sincere dialogue between our "sister churches". We join in the ". . . hope that the barrier dividing the Eastern Church and the Western Church will be removed, and that – at last – there may be but the one dwelling, firmly established on Christ Jesus, the cornerstone, who will make both one" (Unitatis Redintegratio §18).
With Christ as our cornerstone and the tradition we share, we shall be able – or, rather, we shall be enabled by the gift and grace of God – to reach a better appreciation and fuller expression of the Body of Christ. With our continued efforts in accordance with the spirit of the tradition of the early Church, and in the light of the Church of the Councils of the first millennium, we will experience the visible unity that lies just beyond us today.
The Church always excels in its uniquely prophetic and pastoral dimension, embraces its characteristic meekness and spirituality, and serves with humble sensitivity the "least of these My brethren" (Matt. 25.40).
Beloved brother, our presence here signifies and seals our commitment to witness together to the Gospel message of salvation and healing for the least of our brethren: the poor, the oppressed, the forgotten in God's world. Let us begin with prayers for peace and healing for our Christian brothers and sisters living in the Middle East. In the current turmoil of violence, separation, and brokenness that is escalating between peoples and nations, may the love and desire for harmony we profess here, and the understanding we seek through dialogue and mutual respect, serve as a model for our world. Indeed, may all humanity reach out to ‘the other' and work together to overcome the suffering of people everywhere, particularly in the face of famine, natural disasters, disease, and war that ultimately touches all of our lives.
In light of all that has yet to be accomplished by the Church on earth, and with great appreciation for all the progress we have shared, we are, therefore, honored to be invited to attend – and humbled to be called to address – this solemn and festive commemoration of the Second Vatican Council. It is fitting that this occasion also marks for your Church the formal inauguration of the "Year of Faith", as it is faith that provides a visible sign of the journey we have traveled together along the path of reconciliation and visible unity.
In closing, Your Holiness, Beloved Brother, we wholeheartedly congratulate you – together with the blessed multitude assembled here today – and we fraternally embrace you on the joyous occasion of this anniversary celebration. May God bless you all.
[i] All scriptural citations from the New King James Version, Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.